Ways And How To lower Blood Sugar – The Role Of Glucagon and Insulin

Ways And How To lower Blood Sugar – The Role Of Glucagon and Insulin

Ways And How To lower Blood Sugar – The Role Of Glucagon and Insulin. For best deal click here: In terms of regulation of overall blood sugar concentration, there are two types of hormone secreting islet cells in the pancreas that are of specific importance, namely betacells, which produce insulin and alphacells, which produce glucagon.
Insulin triggers cells to absorb glucose from the blood, and glucagon triggers the production of more glucose into the blood. Both insulin and glucagon release into the blood are disturbed in patients with diabetes.

Just how the body regulated the correct amount of glucagon wasn’t clear until now, says Per-Olof Berggren, Ph.D., of the Diabetes Research Institute in Miami and Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm and the senior investigator of the study. Over Cabrera and collaborators found that, in addition to glucagon, pancreatic alpha cells also release glutamate, a neurotransmitter which facilitates the release of glucagon.

“We learned that glutamate acts as a positive signal that instructs alpha cells to speed up glucagon secretion in order to prevent glucose levels from falling too low,” said Alejandro Caicedo, Ph.D., research assistant professor at the Diabetes Research Institute and one of the authors of the study. That process prevents hypoglycemia, which is a serious drop in blood sugar. The researchers were able to show that glutamate drives a feedback system for glucagon release in the alpha cells. The results establish glutamate as a bona fide autocrine signaling molecule, the mechanism by which human islets secrete the appropriate level of glucagon.

Insulin Basics: How Insulin Helps Control Blood Glucose Levels
Insulin and glucagon are hormones secreted by islet cells within the pancreas. They are both secreted in response to blood sugar levels, but in opposite fashion!
Insulin is normally secreted by the beta cells (a type of islet cell) of the pancreas. The stimulus for insulin secretion is a HIGH blood glucose…it’s as simple as that!
Although there is always a low level of insulin secreted by the pancreas, the amount secreted into the blood increases as the blood glucose rises. Similarly, as blood glucose falls, the amount of insulin secreted by the pancreatic islets goes down. As can be seen in the picture, insulin has an effect on a number of cells, including muscle, red blood cells, and fat cells. In response to insulin, these cells absorb glucose out of the blood, having the net effect of lowering the high blood glucose levels into the normal range.

Glucagon is secreted by the alpha cells of the pancreatic islets in much the same manner as insulin…except in the opposite direction. If blood glucose is high, then no glucagon is secreted. When blood glucose goes LOW, however, (such as between meals, and during exercise) more and more glucagon is secreted. Like insulin, glucagon has an effect on many cells of the body, but most notably the liver.

The Role of Glucagon in Blood Glucose Control
The effect of glucagon is to make the liver release the glucose it has stored in its cells into the bloodstream, with the net effect of increasing blood glucose. Glucagon also induces the liver (and some other cells such as muscle) to make glucose out of building blocks obtained from other nutrients found in the body (eg, protein).
Our bodies desire blood glucose to be maintained between 70 mg/dl and 110 mg/dl (mg/dl means milligrams of glucose in 100 milliliters of blood). Below 70 is termed “hypoglycemia.” Above 110 can be normal if you have eaten within 2 to 3 hours. That is why your doctor wants to measure your blood glucose while you are fasting…it should be between 70 and 110. Even after you have eaten, however, your glucose should be below 180. Above 180 is termed “hyperglycemia” (which translates to mean “too much glucose in the blood”).

If your 2 two blood sugar measurements above 200 after drinking a sugar-water drink (glucose tolerance test), then you are diagnosed with diabetes.
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